How Resources Are Allocated In A Market Economy
In market economies, resources are allocated via competition. Businesses must compete with other businesses for resources such as capital, labor, and materials. If they do not, then they will be unable to survive!
In fact, one of the most important things that sets markets apart from state run monopolies is this concept of competitive allocation of resources. When resources are in high demand, their availability becomes less important than how much people want them.
This way, resources are more easily allocated towards whatever product or service individuals want. For example, if there is a lot of money available, companies can invest in better equipment or marketing strategies to win over new customers. Or, if there’s lots of labor, they can recruit more workers or train existing employees on how to perform certain tasks more efficiently.
Resource shortages are an unfortunate part of life outside of full-on capitalism, but they are definitely a thing of the past when we're talking about globalized production.
Factors that influence producers
As we have seen, in a market economy individuals are motivated to make products or services exist because they want to earn money by producing them.
Their income depends on how well they perform their jobs, but also how much of the resources (materials, labor, etc.) they use to produce your product.
If you’re reading this then it is likely that you already know some things about economics, which include concepts like supply and demand.
You may have even learned about how markets work, such as when a lot of people desire an item and so there is a high supply, and thus the price drops. Or when less people desire an item and so there is a low supply, and therefore the price rises.
However, what many do not understand is why those prices remain stable, or even drop slightly before the item becomes too scarce and thus its price goes up! This article will go into more detail on this concept, along with other important terms related to the allocation of resources in a market.
The Law of Demand
In market economies, there is an ever-increasing demand for resources due to increasing consumer demands.
As more people desire products that use natural resources, they will spend money seeking out those products. For example, if many individuals want to buy new cars then car companies will produce more cars to meet this growing demand.
By having more products available, everyone benefits – from the individual consumers who purchase the product to the workers who are employed producing the product.
However, because not all industries require the same amount of resources to function, some groups will be paid less than their counterparts working in related fields.
This does not have to be a problem as long as enough people outside of the underpaying group are willing to pay the “fair” price.
The Law of Supply
As we have seen, in market economies there is a limited amount of something that is consumed or produced. This is because there are only so many resources available to be spent or generated.
As more people spend money to consume products, they create competition for these resources. In other words, if there are not enough oranges for everyone who wants an orange, then some people will simply grow their own!
This process is what economists call supply-demand balance. When there are not enough goods, people become motivated to make more of them. They develop new supplies, find ways to manufacture them, and spread out information about how to use them.
In fact, this process happens very quickly. Before you know it, someone has made enough oranges to satisfy their need for them.
The Law of Cost
In market economies, resources are allocated through competition. Companies strive to make products that customers will buy by lowering their price for the product and increasing how well they satisfy the customer with the product.
By having more efficient competitors, it is easier for one company to be competitive and keep up with the others. This is what creates incentives for companies to produce better quality goods and reduce production costs.
Resources are limited, so when a company does not have to spend as much money to make an identical good, then they have free money to invest in other ways. These could include investing in new technology or improving efficiency of an existing process and system.
These cost-cutting measures also help lower the amount of revenue a company has to earn before they break even on their investment.
The Law of Location
A market economy allocates resources according to where they are needed most at this moment, not where there is a lot of money to be made.
This theory was first proposed by economist Henry George in his book Progress or Decay. According to George, all of our current problems stem from the fact that we have created an economic system that rewards people for taking advantage of scarce resources.
These resource-rich areas include land, water, food, energy, and natural capital like forests and air. By monopolizing these resources, wealthy individuals and corporations gain an edge over others who are struggling to meet their basic needs.
It becomes very easy for them to stay well-fed, sheltered, and comfortable while the rest of the world struggles. This situation can easily contribute to social unrest and even violence.
The Law of Competition
Another important concept in economic theory is the law of competition. This says that individuals and groups will strive to maximize their own rewards by creating or improving products and services.
This happens because every individual wants to achieve his or her personal goals, and therefore they’ll look for ways to fulfill these goals. By doing so, they’ll give themselves more opportunity to succeed and enjoy life.
Competition also occurs when one group tries to win over another group’s business. In other words, companies try to woo customers away from each other through good service and low prices.
These events usually happen quickly, as people are motivated by money. Therefore, anyone can take part in this process at any time.
The Law of the Market
In market economies, resources are allocated through the law of supply and demand. This is an economic theory that says people will devote more energy to something if there is enough of it available.
As companies spend money to advertise new products or services, they find that many people want to buy their product or service. By creating demand for their item, they influence other individuals to purchase it by offering discounts or even free samples.
The advertisements also promote word-of-mouth marketing as shoppers share information about the company’s products. Many people trust advertising from large corporations so that person who wants to know more about a particular brand can go into another store that carries that item and learn whether it is worth buying or not.
Supply cannot exist without demand, but demand does not come fully alive unless there is adequate supply. At this stage, people have run out of options because there isn’t anything else like the old one they were using.
When this happens, they make room in their collection for a newer version of the item by selling their current model at its reduced price.
The Law of the Economy
In any market, there is a finite amount of resources available to be distributed among those who need them.
These resources can include money, land, natural products like oil or water, or anything else that people want or use to fulfill their needs.
As more individuals desire these goods, they will spend money, own property (or at least rent it), or start producing their own version of the product. This is how additional resources are added to the pool for others to access.
By this law, as more people desire something, then less of it is left for other people. For example, if many individuals desire an item such as a car, then there may not be too many cars out there.
Similarly, if many individuals desire lots of food due to having children, then there may not be enough food produced to meet everyone’s demands.
This is what our economy becomes once all the different users in it have accessed the same amount of each resource, making sure that they still wanted it.